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Jefferson attempted to create an efficient plantation based on new approaches to agriculture and manufacturing. To realize his goals, dozens of enslaved and free workers lived and worked here on Mulberry Row. He added a series of dwellings and workshops to the outbuildings that served his elite household. Structures were built, dismantled, or re-purposed as Jefferson’s needs changed.

Jefferson rebuilt his house (1796–1809), doubling its size. He also shifted agricultural production on the plantation from tobacco to wheat and set up a nail factory. On Mulberry Row, he constructed new houses for slaves; a smokehouse, dairy,  and wash house to serve the needs of his family and their guests; and a nailery and smith’s shop for profit.

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Phase II (1791 – 1809)
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This structure contained two smokehouses to dry and cure meat as well as a dairy to make butter and cream.
ca. 1790–1809

In addition to storing nailrod, this building also housed a brief tinsmithing operation in the 1790s and a nail-making enterprise after 1812.  It also served as living quarters for enslaved workers.
ca. 1790–ca. 1830

Three identical “servants houses,” were intended for enslaved house servants and artisans, including members of the Hemings family.

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