Thomas Jefferson lived in Paris from August 1784 to September 1789: five years that were, according to Lucia Stanton and Douglas L. Wilson, "arguably the most memorable of his life. Paris—with its music, its architecture, its savants and salons, its learning and enlightenment, not to mention its elegant social life…had worked its enchantments on this rigidly self-controlled Virginia gentleman, and had stimulated him to say and do and write remarkable things."
Jefferson was sent to Paris by Congress to join American Ministers Plenipotentiary Benjamin Franklin and John Adams. When Franklin returned to America in 1785, Jefferson succeeded him. Jefferson wrote to John Jay in June, 1785: "On the 14th. of May I communicated to the Count de Vergennes my appointment As Minister Plenipotentiary to this court, and on the 17th delivered my letter of credence to the King at a private audience."
From his youth, Jefferson dreamed of taking the Grand Tour of Europe, but it wasn’t until the forty-one year old widower received a diplomatic appointment to Paris in 1784 that the dream became a reality. Early in his life Jefferson learned to admire European culture through books, as Peter Jefferson had insisted that his son have a classical education.[*]
His enthusiasm for being in Paris is seen in a letter he wrote to Charles Bellini, September 30, 1785: "Behold me at length on the vaunted scene of Europe!...You are perhaps, curious to know how this new scene has struck a savage of the mountains of America...Were I to proceed to tell you how much I enjoy their architecture, sculpture, painting, music, I should want words. It is in these arts they shine."
Jefferson wrote about Parisian architecture to Madame de Tessé: "While in Paris, I was violently smitten with the Hôtel de Salm, and used to go to the Thuileries almost daily, to look at it." He saw the remodeled Palais Royal, the Halle aux Bleds, and various cathedrals, including Sainte-Genevieve (the Panthéon) and the Madeleine.
In Paris, Jefferson was introduced to the leading artists of the day. He met Jacques Louis David and posed for Jean Antoine Houdon "for a portrait bust that was later exhibited in the Salon of 1789." He attended the 1789 exhibit at the Salon Carrée in the Louvre with Gouverneur Morris, and they saw works by Hubert Robert, David and Madame Vigée Le Brun. Copies of the European Masters that Jefferson purchased at auctions and at indebted estates hung on the walls of his elegant Parisian house, the Hôtel d’Langeac.
Jefferson wrote about engineering feats that he saw in Paris: "He marveled at the hydraulic pumping system that provided the water for the royal gardens and called attention to the quiet magnificence of Parisian bridges…On his tours…his pen was kept busy recording his rapid-fire observations—on soil, on crops and livestock, on roads, and canals, and on local customs."
While in Paris, Jefferson attended several theaters where he saw "plays by Racine, Molière, Lasage, and Dancourt. But the most notable production he attended was Beaumarchais’ Mariage de Figaro, ou La Folle Journée."
Jefferson especially enjoyed visiting the book stores of Paris: "While residing in Paris, I devoted every afternoon I was disengaged, for a summer or two, in examining all the principal bookstores, turning over every book with my own hand, and putting by everything which related to America, and indeed whatever was rare and valuable in every science."
Susan Stein, in The Worlds of Thomas Jefferson at Monticello, writes about Jefferson "Shopping for a Lifetime" in France. He bought furniture, kitchen utensils, candlesticks, teapots, tablecloths, fabric and many other items. When he arrived back in America he would eventually have 86 packing crates shipped to him from Paris.
Primary Source References
1785 September 20. (Jefferson to James Madison). "You see I am an enthusiast on the subject of the arts. But it is an enthusiasm of which I am not ashamed, as its object is to improve the taste of my countrymen, to increase their reputation, to reconcile to them the respect to the world, and procure them its praise."
1785 September 20. (Jefferson to James Madison). "We took for our model what is called the Maison quarrée of Nismes, one of the most beautiful, if not the most beautiful and precious morsel of architecture left us by antiquity."
1785 September 30. (Jefferson to Charles Bellini). "Behold me at length on the vaunted scene of Europe! ….I have never yet seen a man drunk in France, even among the lowerst of people. Were I to proceed to tell you how much I enjoy their architecture, sculpture, painting, music, I should want words. It is in these arts they shine."
1787 March 2. (Jefferson to To Madame de Tessé). "“While in Paris, I was violently smitten with the Hotel de Salm, and used to go to the Thuileries almost daily, to look at it.”
1787 August 30. (Jefferson to John Trumbull).“The Salon has been open for or five days. I inclose you a list of it’s treasures. The best thing is the Death of Socrates by David, and a superb one it is. A crucifixion by Roland in imitation of Relief is as perfect as it can be. Five pieces of antiquities by Robert are also among the foremost. Many portraits of Madme. Le Brun are exhibited and much approved. There are abundance of things in the stile of mediocrity. Upon the whole it is well worth your coming to see…The whole will be an affair of 12. or 14. days and as many guineas; and as it happens but once in two years, you should not miss it."
- ↑ This section is based on Betty Goss, Research Report, November 2008.
- ↑ Thomas Jefferson: Jefferson Abroad, (New York: Modern Library, 199),v.
- ↑ 17 June 1785. PTJ, 8:226.
- ↑ Ibid, 8:568-569.
- ↑ 20 March 1787. Ibid, 11:226.
- ↑ Stanton and Wilson, vii.
- ↑ William Howard Adams, The Paris Years of Thomas Jefferson, (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1997), 68.
- ↑ Jefferson to Samuel H. Smith, 21 September 1814. Peterson, Writings, 1353.
- ↑ Please note that this list should not be considered comprehensive
- ↑ PTJ, 8:535.
- ↑ Ibid, 8:534-535.
- ↑ Ibid, 8:569.
- ↑ Peterson, Writings, 891.
- ↑ PTJ, 12:69.
- Adams, William Howard. Paris Years of Thomas Jefferson. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1997. Available for purchase at Monticello Museum Shop
- Dumbauld, Edward. Thomas Jefferson, American Tourist. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1946.
- Kimball, Marie Geobel. Jefferson: The Scene in Europe. New York: Coward-McCann, 1951.
- MB, 1:557-743.
- Malone, Jefferson, 2:82-202.
- Moore, Ray. Thomas Jefferson’s journey to the south of France. New York: Stewart, Tabori & Chang, 1999.
- Rice, Howard C. Jr. Thomas Jefferson's Paris. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1976.
- Shackelford, George Green. Thomas Jefferson's Travels in Europe, 1784-1789. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1995.
- Stein, Worlds, 18-40.
- Wilson, Douglas and Lucia Stanton. Thomas Jefferson: Jefferson Abroad. New York: Modern Library, 1999.
- Look for Sources in the Thomas Jefferson Portal
- *. This footnote is assigned the label "*"