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Ann Cary Randolph Bankhead (Sculpture)
Artist/Maker: William Coffee (c. 1774-c.1846)
Created: c. 1818-1820
Dimensions: 31.75 x 20.32 x 10.16 (12 1/2 x 8 x 4 in.)
Location: South Square Room
Accession Number: 1927-1
Historical Notes: Anne Cary Randolph, daughter of Martha and Thomas Mann Randolph, was Jefferson's first grandchild and chief gardening correspondent when he was absent from Monticello. "How stands the fruit with you in the neighborhood and at Monticello," Jefferson wrote twelve-year-old Anne from Washington,
and particularly the peas, as they are what will be in season when I come home. The figs also, have they been hurt? You must mount Midas and ride over to Monticello to inform yourself or collect the information from good authority and let me have it by next post.
From yourself I may soon expect a report of your first visit to Monticello, and the state of our joint concerns there. I find that the limited number of our flower beds will too much restrain the variety of flowers in which we might wish to indulge, and therefore I have resumed an idea...of a winding walk surrounding the lawn before the house, with a narrow border of flowers on each side.
During the winter of 1805-06, when Anne was fifteen, she lived in the President's House with her grandfather, along with her mother and five brothers and sisters. Just a year before Jefferson's retirement from the presidency, Anne married Charles Lewis Bankhead, a twenty-year-old law student. Their first home was at Carlton, on the western slope of Monticello. Anne and Charles's marriage was a troubled one, marred by alcoholism and violence. After one particularly serious episode at Monticello, Jefferson wrote to Bankhead's father hoping to convince him that his son's recovery could only be effected by his moving home, where his sobriety could be constantly enforced.
Unfortunately, Charles's behavior toward Anne and their children continued to distress the family greatly. Following a bloody street fight between Bankhead and his brother-in-law Thomas Jefferson Randolph in 1819, Jefferson wrote that Bankhead deserved to be in a penitentiary. Anne was so attached to her husband that she could not be persuaded to leave him to live at Monticello. She died in February 1826, at the age of thirty-five, two weeks after the birth of her fourth child. Jefferson, who was present at Anne's death, "abandoned himself to every evidence of intense grief."
- Text from Stein, Worlds, 235-236.
- Betts, Family Letters.
- Cockerham, Anne Z., Arlene W. Keeling and Barbara Parker. "Seeking Refuge at Monticello: Domestic Violence in Thomas Jefferson's Family." Magazine of Albemarle County History 64 (2006): 29-52.
- Richmond Enquirer, 23 Feb. 1826.
- Shackelford, Descendants, 67–75.
- Thomas Jefferson Foundation. Family Letters Digital Archive.
- Thomas Jefferson Foundation. The Monticello Classroom. "Anne (Ann) Cary Randolph Bankhead, Jefferson's granddaughter." A short biography of Anne for younger readers.
- 1. Thomas Jefferson to Anne Cary Randolph, Washington, May 20, 1803, in Family Letters, 245-246.
- 2. Jefferson to Anne Cary Randolph, Washington, June 7, 1807, in ibid., 307-308; See also Edwin M. Betts and Hazlehurst Perkins, Thomas Jefferson's flower garden at Monticello (Charlottesville: Thomas Jefferson Memorial Foundation, 1986), 36-37.
- 3. Jefferson to Anne Cary Randolph, Washington, June 7, 1807, in Family Letters, 307-308.
- 4. Olivia Taylor, "Charles Lewis and Anne Cary Bankhead," in Shackelford, Descendants,, 1:71-72.
- 5. Ibid., 73-74; Malone, Jefferson, 6:159.
- 6. Martha Jefferson Randolph to Jefferson, Monticello, November 20, 1816, in Family Letters, 417. Bankhead engaged in a street fight with his brother-in-law Thomas Jefferson Randolph in Charlottesville on February 1, 1819.
- 7. Malone, Jefferson, 6:298-300.
- 8. Samuel X. Radbill, ed., The Autobiographical Ana of Robley Dunglison, M.D. in Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, 53 (1963):34. Dunglison was the attending physician.