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William Burwell (Physiognotrace)
Artist/Maker: Charles Fevret de Saint-Memin (1770-1852)
Dimensions: 5.7 (2 1/4 in.)
Owner: Library of Congress
Historical Notes: Jefferson's secretary William Burwell, a Virginia native, was part of the Presidential "family" from 1804 until 1806. Jefferson described the position as "more in the nature of an Aid de camp, than a mere Secretary." Burwell needed to do very little writing since Jefferson wrote his own letters and copied them with the aid of a polygraph. The secretary assisted Jefferson with the care of his company, the execution of commissions in Washington, messages to Congress, and meetings with particular members of Congress. Burwell was promised a salary of $600 year, a servant to answer his needs, and a horse for his use kept in the stables at the President's House.
Burwell left Jefferson's employ because of his poor health and commitments as a member of Virginia's General Assembly. In 1806, he won a seat in Congress, where he served until his death in 1821. Burwell's support for Jefferson was steadfast, and he led Jefferson's defense in 1805 against the accusations of the journalist James Callender. Jefferson and Burwell maintained a warm personal and political correspondence for years after Jefferson's departure from the President's House.
- Text from Stein, Worlds, 206
- U.S. Congress. Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. "William Armisted Burwell."
- 1. Jefferson to Burwell, Washington, March 26, 1804, Thomas Jefferson Papers, Library of Congress. Polygraph copy available online.
- 2. Ibid.
- 3. Burwell to Jefferson, January 18, 1805, Thomas Jefferson Papers, Library of Congress. Recipient copy available online. Transcription available at Founders Online. See also Burwell to Jefferson, September 15, 1805, Thomas Jefferson Papers, Library of Congress. Recipient copy available online. Transcription available at Founders Online.
- 4. Specifically Burwell helped refute accusations surrounding the "Walker Affair." See Malone, Jefferson, 5:14-16. For details about the affair, see ibid., 1:153-55, 1:447-51, and 4:217-18.