For millennia, Indigenous peoples in North America lived in exceptionally varied cultures with equally diverse governments, languages, and economies—cultures that were forever changed by colonization.

Thomas Jefferson’s complex and often contradictory views on Indigenous peoples offer insight into larger attitudes of the time. He at once saw Native Americans as a source of curiosity, worthy of respect, but also requiring domination and Anglicizing.

In this live Q&A with Heather Bruegl, a citizen of the Oneida Nation and Director of Education for Forge Project, discusses early American attitudes toward Native Americans and how the legacies of colonization are still felt today.