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Physical punishment was inherent in the coercive system of slavery, although Jefferson tried to minimize it. 

ON MONTICELLO'S WEB SITE: The Hemings-Jefferson Controversy: A Brief Account A Statement from Daniel P. Jordan, President of the Thomas Jefferson Foundation, issued on November 1, 1998
Jefferson and the Early Diplomatic Corps The recent controversy over release of U.S. diplomatic cables via Wikileaks got us thinking about how Jefferson, the U.S.'s first Secretary of State under the Constitution, and his successors communicated with their ambassadors and consuls abroad. Luckily,...
Technical Reports The Elizabeth Hemings Site . Excavations in 1995 and 1996 at the site where Elizabeth Hemings, matriarch of Monticello's famous Hemings family, lived during the decade before her death in 1807.
Introduction Previous archaeological excavations on Mulberry Row have been guided by a plat prepared by Thomas Jefferson in 1796. Jefferson drew the plat as part of an insurance policy he took out with the Mutual Assurance Company of Richmond. He meticulously mapped the location of his mansion in...
The Department of Archaeology is dedicated to studying and preserving Monticello's archaeological record, and to deciphering its meaning through comparative research. Historical topics of special focus in the Department's fieldwork include landscape history and slavery, both at Monticello and in...
Detail from Callender's 1802 piece on Jefferson and Sally Hemings
Years after his wife’s death, Thomas Jefferson fathered at least six of Sally Hemings ’s children. Four survived to adulthood and are mentioned in Jefferson’s plantation records: Beverly, Harriet, Madison, and Eston Hemings. Sally Hemings worked for two and a half years (1787-89) in Paris as a...
Learn more about some of the people who lived and worked at Monticello. Enslaved People Free Workmen Overseers Hemings Family Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemings



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