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Free Workmen

Over the course of Thomas Jefferson's ownership of Monticello, more than 100 free workmen were employed on the plantation. We know little about the lives of many of these workers, who contributed to the Monticello economy at various times and in varying capacities. The following list of names indicates the types of jobs and the duration of employment for most of these employees. Follow the links to learn more about those individuals who left a substantial trail in the documentary record. Known residents of Monticello are marked "R". (Please note that overseers have not been included.)

- Lucia Stanton, 1993

Selected Free Workmen

Current Complete List

Richard Adams, Brickmaker or Bricklayer, 1796

Joseph Anderson, Stonemason, 1775

Joseph Antrim, Plasterer, 1817, 1819

Robert Bailey (d. 1804), Gardener, 1794-1797 R

Abraham Balyal, Work Unknown, 1770

Ban, Hired Slave?, Work Unknown, 1799

David Barnet, Sawyer, 1795-1796

Richard Barry, Painter and Glazier, 1805-1808

Will Beck, Limeburner/blower, General Labor, 1769-1801 R?

John Beckley, Sawyer, 1776-1777

John G. Belt, Millwright, 1808-1810

Francis Bishop, Blacksmith, 1774-1776 R

William Bishop, Brickmaker, 1770-1772

William Bowen, Mason?, 1778

George Bradby (d. 1778), Free Black, General Labor?, 1774-1778 R?

John Brewer, Brickmaker, 1777-1778 R?

Ase H. Brooks, Roofer, 1821

John Brown, Millwright, 1813

Buck, Hired Slave, Shoemaker, 1810

John Buck, Millwright, 1796-1799 R

Samuel Campbell, Stonemason, 1821

Youen Carden, Miller, 1808-1824 R

Steward Carroll, General Labor, 1767

Hugh Chisholm, Mason/Brickmaker, Plasterer, 1796-1797, 1801-1814 R

John Chisholm, Mason/Brickmaker, 1808-1909

Benjamin Colvard (Calvert), Jr., Carpenter, 1778-1779

Lewis Crutchfield, Work Unknown, 1777

William Davenport, Carpenter, 1797-1798 R

Andrew Defoe, Limeblower, 1771-1774

Micajah Defoe, Work Unknown, 1770-1771

James Dinsmore, Joiner, 1798-1809 R

George Dudley, Brickmaker, 1769-1774

Henry Duke, Brickmason, 1797-1799

William Duncan, Plasterer's Assistant, 1804

Richard Durrett, Carpenter, 1813 R

Gideon Fitz (Fitch), Carpenter, 1802-1803

Bartlett Ford, General Labor, 1769-1772

William Fossett, Carpenter, 1775-1779 R

Francis Gaines, Work Unknown, 1781-1782

Humphrey Gaines, Carpenter, 1774-1778 R

William Gaines, Work Unknown, 1778-1779 R

John Gentry, Miller, 1806

Anthony Giannini, Gardener, 1778-1782 R, 1791, 1802

Joseph Gilmore (Gilmer), Millwright, 1813-1820

Giovannini da Prato, Gardener, 1780-1784

Rolin Goodman, Carpenter, 1813-1817 R

John Gorman, Stonecutter, 1819

Grady, Nailery Manager, 1807

Henry Gray, Work Unknown, 1782 R?

James Hamner, Work Unknown, 1806

John Holmes (d. 1801), Joiner, 1800-1801 R

Michael Hope, Stonemason, 1802-1805

Robert Hope, Stonemason, 1803

H. Hough, Charcoalburner, 1798

John Houseright, Work Unknown, 1770

Isaac Jackson (b. 1742), Bonded Mulatto, Free from 1773, Work Unknown, 1769-1778 R?

Randall Johnson, Brickmason, 1773-1777

John Jordan, Brickmason, 1805

Kendrick, Mason?, 1778

Bartholomew Kindred (d. 1805), Weaver, 1776-1782

Willis Liggin (Ligon), Weaver, 1822

James McGee (McGehee), Carpenter, 1798-1799

William Maclure, Weaver (made textile machinery), 1812-1813 R

William Maddox, Stonemason, 1802, 1806-1808

George Manly (b. 1738), Once Bonded, Work Unknown, 1772-1774

Edmund Meeks, Carpenter, 1819-1823 R

Jacob Miller, Work Unknown, 1770

Joseph Miller (b. 1768), Brewer, 1813

Joseph Moran, Stonemason, 1801-1802

Thomas Morgan, Miller, 1767?-1771

Patrick Morton, Engrafter, 1769-1780

John Neilson (d. 1827), Joiner, 1805-1809 R

Joseph Neilson, Carpenter, Joiner, 1775-1779 R

James Oldham (d. 1843), Joiner, 1801-1804 R, 1805-1897

William Orr, Blacksmith, 1781-1784

John M. Perry, Carpenter, 1800-1811

Reuben Perry, Carpenter, 1799-1803

William B. Phillips, Brickmason, 1823

Joseph Pond, Brickmaker, 1776-1777

William Pond, Brickmaker, 1774

Larkin Powers, Carpenter, 1818 R

Joseph Price, Carpenter, 1783 R

Peter B. Read, Millwright, 1822

William Rice, Indentured Servant?, Stonecutter, 1775-1780 R

Richard Richardson, Brickmason, 1796-1801 R

Robinson, Sawyer, 1795

James Sammons, Stonemason, 1809-1813

Julius Shard, Brickmason, General Labor, 1771-1773

John Shell, Brickmason?, 1796

Jacob Silknitter, Charcoalburner, 1795-1797

Richard Sorrels (d. 1773), General Labor, 1769-1773

William Sorrels, Work Unknown, 1772-1773

James Stark, Carpenter, 1810-1812 R

John Steele, Stonemason, 1796

William Stewart, Blacksmith, 1801-1807 R

Richard Taylor, Work Unknown, 1771

Ternan, Limeblower, 1803

John Thomas, Work Unknown, 1822

Richard Thomas, Work Unknown, 1822

James Walker, Millwright, 1805-1807

Thomas Walker, Convict Servant, Cabinetmaker, 1773-1778 R

Peggy Wanlace, Weaver?, 1777

Martin Wanscher, Plasterer, 1801-1804 R

Wash, Plasterer, 1800

Elisha Watkins, Carpenter, 1809 R

David Watson, Joiner, 1781-1784, 1792, 1793-1797 R

Julius Webb, Work Unknown, 1768-1769

Stephen Willis, Brickmason, 1770-1778, 1796 R

Related Links:
Monticello Classroom: The Plantation Economy
Monticello as Experiment:‘To Try All Things’
Monticello, the House

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