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Free Workmen

There were over 100 free workmen who worked on the Monticello plantation at various times.[1] Unfortunately, we know little about the lives of many of these workers who contributed to the plantation economy. The following list indicates the types of jobs and the duration of employment for many of these workers. Follow the links to learn more about some of these individuals who left a substantial trail in the documentary record.  Note: Overseers not included; known residents of Monticello marked "R".

Selected Free Workmen

Current Complete List

Richard Adams, Brickmaker or Bricklayer, 1796  

Joseph Anderson,   Stonemason,   1775  

Joseph Antrim,   Plasterer,   1817, 1819  

Robert Bailey (d. 1804), Gardener, 1794-1797 R  

Abraham Balyal, Work Unknown, 1770  

Ban, Hired Slave?, Work Unknown, 1799

David Barnet, Sawyer, 1795-1796  

Richard Barry, Painter and Glazier, 1805-1808  

Will Beck, Limeburner/blower, General Labor, 1769-1801 R?  

John Beckley, Sawyer, 1776-1777  

John G. Belt, Millwright, 1808-1810

Francis Bishop, Blacksmith, 1774-1776 R  

William Bishop,  Brickmaker, 1770-1772  

William Bowen,  Mason?,  1778  

George Bradby (d. 1778), Free Black,  General Labor?, 1774-1778 R?  

John Brewer, Brickmaker, 1777-1778 R?  

Ase H. Brooks, Roofer, 1821  

John Brown, Millwright, 1813  

Buck, Hired Slave, Shoemaker, 1810  

John Buck, Millwright, 1796-1799 R  

Samuel Campbell, Stonemason, 1821  

Youen Carden, Miller,  1808-1824 R  

Steward Carroll, General Labor, 1767  

Hugh Chisholm, Mason/Brickmaker, Plasterer   1796-1797, 1801-1814 R  

John Chisholm,  Mason/Brickmaker, 1808-1909  

Benjamin Colvard (Calvert) Jr., Carpenter,1778-1779  

Lewis Crutchfield,  Work Unknown, 1777  

William Davenport, Carpenter, 1797-1798 R  

Andrew Defoe, Limeblower, 1771-1774

Micajah Defoe, Work Unknown, 1770-1771  

James Dinsmore, Joiner, 1798-1809 R  

George Dudley, Brickmaker, 1769-1774

Henry Duke, Brickmason, 1797-1799  

William Duncan, Plasterer's Assistant, 1804  

Richard Durrett, Carpenter, 1813 R  

Gideon Fitz (Fitch), Carpenter, 1802-1803  

Bartlett Ford, General Labor, 1769-1772  

William Fossett, Carpenter, 1775-1779 R  

Francis Gaines, Work Unknown, 1781-1782  

Humphrey Gaines, Carpenter, 1774-1778 R  

William Gaines, Work Unknown, 1778-1779 R  

John Gentry, Miller, 1806  

Anthony Giannini, Gardener, 1778-1782 R, 1791, 1802  

Joseph Gilmore (Gilmer), Millwright, 1813-1820  

Giovannini da Prato, Gardener, 1780-1784  

Rolin Goodman, Carpenter, 1813-1817 R  

John Gorman,  Stonecutter, 1819

Grady,  Nailery Manager,   1807  

Henry Gray,  Work Unknown,  1782 R?  

James Hamner, Work Unknown, 1806

John Holmes (d. 1801), Joiner, 1800-1801 R  

Michael Hope, Stonemason, 1802-1805  

Robert Hope, Stonemason, 1803  

H. Hough, Charcoalburner, 1798  

John Houseright,  Work Unknown, 1770  

Isaac Jackson (b. 1742), Bonded Mulatto, Free from 1773, Work Unknown,1769-1778 R?  

Randall Johnson, Brickmason,1773-1777  

John Jordan,  Brickmason, 1805

Kendrick,  Mason?, 1778  

Bartholomew Kindred (d. 1805), Weaver, 1776-1782  

Willis Liggin (Ligon), Weaver, 1822  

James McGee (McGehee), Carpenter, 1798-1799  

William Maclure, Weaver (Made Textile Machinery), 1812-1813 R  

William Maddox, Stonemason, 1802, 1806-1808  

George Manly (b. 1738), Once Bonded, Work Unknown,1772-1774  

Edmund Meeks, Carpenter, 1819-1823 R  

Jacob Miller, Work Unknown, 1770  

Joseph Miller (b. 1768), Brewer, 1813  

Joseph Moran, Stonemason,1801-1802  

Thomas Morgan, Miller, to 1771  

Patrick Morton, Engrafter, 1769-1780  

John Neilson (d. 1827), Joiner, 1805-1809 R  

Joseph Neilson,  Carpenter, Joiner, 1775-1779 R  

James Oldham (d. 1843), Joiner, 1801-1804 R, 1805-1897  

William Orr,  Blacksmith, 1781-1784  

John M. Perry, Carpenter, 1800-1811  

Reuben Perry, Carpenter, 1799-1803  

William B. Phillips, Brickmason, 1823  

Joseph Pond, Brickmaker, 1776-1777  

William Pond, Brickmaker, 1774  

Larkin Powers, Carpenter, 1818 R  

Joseph Price, Carpenter, 1783 R  

Peter B. Read, Millwright, 1822  

William Rice, Indentured Servant?, Stonecutter, 1775-1780 R  

Richard Richardson, Brickmason, 1796-1801 R 

Robinson,  Sawyer, 1795  

James Sammons, Stonemason, 1809-1813  

Julius Shard,  Brickmason, General Labor, 1771-1773  

John Shell,  Brickmason?, 1796  

Jacob Silknitter,  Charcoalburner, 1795-1797  

Richard Sorrels (d. 1773), General Labor, 1769-1773  

William Sorrels, Work Unknown, 1772-1773  

James Stark, Carpenter, 1810-1812 R  

John Steele, Stonemason, 1796  

William Stewart, Blacksmith, 1801-1807 R  

Richard Taylor,  Work Unknown, 1771

Ternan, Limeblower, 1803  

John Thomas, Work Unknown,1822  

Richard Thomas, Work Unknown, 1822  

James Walker, Millwright, 1805-1807  

Thomas Walker, Convict Servant, Cabinetmaker, 1773-1778 R  

Peggy Wanlace, Weaver?, 1777  

Martin Wanscher, Plasterer, 1801-1804 R

Wash,  Plasterer, 1800  

Elisha Watkins, Carpenter, 1809 R  

David Watson, Joiner, 1781-1784, 1792, 1793-1797 R  

Julius Webb,  Work Unknown, 1768-1769  

Stephen Willis, Brickmason, 1770-1778, 1796 R


1. This article is based on Lucia Stanton, Monticello Research Report, 1993.

Related Links:
Monticello Classroom: The Plantation Economy
Monticello, the House
Monticello as Experiment:‘To Try All Things’


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