Despite claims to the contrary, we have no evidence of Thomas Jefferson's personal interest in the game of marbles or ownership of a collection of marbles. The first known appearance of this claim dates from 1972.1 It was repeated in 1973 in Fred Ferretti's The Great American Marble Book,2 and in a subsequent article by Ferretti on marbles for the Encyclopedia Americana.3
There are a number of letters where Jefferson refers to "marbles," meaning mineralogical specimens.4 These references may have contributed to the confusion regarding Jefferson's interest in "marbles."
4. See, e.g., "I have not a scrip of a pen on the subject of the marbles you mention as arrived for me at Philada, neither invoice, nor advice nor letter of any sort." Jefferson to John Vaughan, October 12, 1825, Massachusetts Historical Society. Transcription available at Founders Online.