Albemarle and other Historical Information

Ambrose, Stephen, E. Undaunted Courage. New York: Simon &Schuster Inc., 1996.

Anderson, Sarah Travers Lewis (Scott). Lewises, Meriwethers and Their Kin. Richmond, Virginia: The Dietz Press, 1938.

Bakeless, John. Lewis and Clark, Partners in Discovery. New York: William Morrow, 1947.

Blanton, Wyndham B. MD. Medicine in Virginia in the Eighteenth Century. Richmond, VA: Garrett & Massie, Inc., 1931.

Carmigniani, Maestra Flavia Beatrice. Exploring Period Pigment. Monrovia, CA: Griifin Dyeworks & Fiber Arts, 2007.

Chenoweth, Avery and Llewellyn, Robert. Albemarle: A Story of Landscape and American Identity. Charlottesville, VA and London: Albemarle Books, Distributed by the University of Virginia, 2003.

Clinton, Catherine. The Plantation Mistress: Woman’s World in the Old South. New York: Pantheon Books, 1982.

Cooper, Jean, L. A Guide to Historic Charlottesville & Albemarle County Virginia. Charleston, SC: The History Press, 2007.

Dary, David. Frontier Medicine from the Atlantic to the Pacific 1492-1941. New York: Knopf, Inc., 2008.

DeVoto, Bernard (Ed). The Journals of Lewis and Clark. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1953.

Fox-Genovese, Elizabeth. Within the Plantation Household: Black and White Women of the Old South. Chapel Hill, NC and London: The University of North Carolina Press, 1988.

Lay, K. Edward. The Architecture of Jefferson Country: Charlottesville and Albemarle County, Virginia. Charlottesville, NC and London: University Press of Virginia, 2000.

Morgan, Robert Morgan. Boone: A Biography. Chapel Hill, NC: Algonquin Books, 2007.

Rogers, Richard P., Director. American Experience: A Midwife's Tale, from the series, American Experience, Public Broadcasting System, 1997.

Saffron, Morris, H. Surgeon to Washington: Dr. John Cochran (1730-1807). New York: Columbia Press, 1977.

Saindon, Robert, A., Editor. Explorations into the World of Lewis & Clark, Volume One. Great Falls, MT: Lewis and Clark Foundation Inc., 2003. Found at:,Albemarle+County+VA&source=bl&ots=x3gwfeHqB_&sig=WHan5ktTk6OkadE7shiR0yLUuCU&hl=en&ei=9jagSerzPM3dtgfczuiKDQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=7&ct=result#PPA104,M1

Slaughter, Thomas, P. The Natures of John and William Bartram. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1996.

Smith, Barbara Clark. After the Revolutions: The Smithsonian History of Everyday Life in the Eighteenth Century. New York: Pantheon Books, 1985.

Speed, John Gilmer and Minor, Louisa, H.A. The Gilmers in America. Madison, WI: The University of Wisconsin digitalized this 1897 book.

Woods, Edgar. Albemarle County in Virginia. Westminster, MD: Heritage Books, originally printed in 1901, reprinted in 2006.

Biography Resources

Anderson, Fred Anderson. Crucible of War: The Seven Years War and the Fate of Empire in British North America 1754-1766. New York: Vintage Books, 2001.

Anderson, Sarah Travers Lewis (Scott). Lewises, Meriwethers and Their Kin. Baltimore, MD: Genealogical Publishing Company, Inc., 1884.

Bakeless, John. Lewis and Clark: Partners in Discovery. New York: William Morrow & Company, 1947.

Benson, Guy Meriwether. Whatever Happened to Elizabeth Thornton? Meriwether Connections, Vol. XV, No. 4, Oct-Dec 1996.

Breedon, James O. The Medical World of Thomas Walker. The Magazine of Albemarle County History, Volume 52, 1994.

Buttrick, Charlotte and Vance, Tamara, Vance, Eds. Southwest Mountain Area Natural Resource and Historic Preservation Study. Warrenton, VA: Piedmont Environmental Council, 1989.

Chuinard, E. G., M.D. Only One Man Died. Lewis and Clark Trail Expedition Foundation, 1979, pp. 107-109.

Dahl, Ann Sale. Locust Hill Family Graveyard. A Presentation Given at the Annual Meeting Locust Hill Graveyard Association Meeting, August 24, 2000.

Fischer, David Hackett. Albion’s Seed: Four British Folkways in America. New York: Oxford University Press, Inc., 1989.

Flexner, James Thomas. Washington: The Indispensable Man. Boston, MA: Back Bay Books, 1974.

Gilmer, G. R. Sketches of Some of the First Settlers of Upper Georgia. Baltimore: MD, Genealogical Publishing Company, 1965.

Hendrix, James P. Jr. Meriwether Lewis’s Georgia Boyhood. We Proceed On - Magazine of the Lewis-Clark Expedition National Foundation, 2001.

Jordan, Mary Alice, Ed. Cotton to Kaolin: A History of Washington County, GA 1784-1989. Sanderson, GA: Washington County Historical Society, 1989.

Lay, K. Edward and Stockton, Martha, Tuzson. Castle Hill: The Walker Family Estate. The Magazine of Albemarle County History, Volume 52, 1994.

Lewis, Jan. The Pursuit of Happiness: Family and Values in Jefferson’s Virginia. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1984.

Lewis, Meriwether. Letter to his mother, Lucy Meriwether Lewis Marks, from “Clover Fields” an original letter in the University of Virginia Library, 1791.

Lewis, William. Inventory Appraisal, 1780, Will Book 2/page 384; Will Book 3/page 12; Will Book 3/p. 265, Albemarle County Courthouse, Charlottesville, VA.

Mackenzie, Colin, M.D., Letter to Reuben Lewis, an original letter in the University of Virginia Library, 1823.

McGhee, Peter M. Article on Meriwether Lewis, 1886, from Special Collections, University of Virginia Library.

Moore, John Hammond Moore. Albemarle: Jefferson’s County 1727-1976. Charlottesville, VA: Albemarle County Historical Society and the University Press of Virginia, 1976.

Rawlings, Mary. The Albemarle of Other Day. Charlottesville, VA: The Michie Company, VA, 1925.

Rawlings, Mary. Ante-Bellum Albemarle. Charlottesville, VA: Albemarle County Historical Society, 1935.

Speed, John Gilmer Speed & Minor, Louisa H. A. The Gilmers in America. New York: BiblioLife Reproductions, from original published in 1897.

Weld, Isaac. Travels Through the States of North America (2 Vol.), London: T. Gillet, Printer, 1779.

Wilkes County, Georgia resources website:

Woods, Edgar. Albemarle County in Virginia. Westminster, MD: Heritage Books, originally published in 1901, reprinted in 2006.

Work Projects Administration Program. The Story of Washington-Wilkes. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press, 1947.

Yanni, Carla. The Architecture of Madness: Insane Asylums in the United States. Minnesota: The University of Minnesota Press, 2007.

Other Web sites:

TMSI Research Database Meriwether Society:

Botanical Sources

Bartram, William. Travels through North and South Carolina, Georgia, East and West Florida & Travels in Georgia and Florida 1773-1774. New York: Library of America Edition, 1996.

Betts, Edwin Morris. Thomas Jefferson’s Garden Book 1766-1824 with Relevant Extracts from His Other Writings. Philadelphia, PA: The American Philosophical Society, 1944.

Cobb, Baughton. Peterson’s Field Guide to Ferns. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, 1956, 1963.

Cody, John. Wings of Paradise-The Great Saturniid Moths. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1996.

Comfort, John. The Practice of Medicine on Thomsonian Principles and a Materia Medica. Philadelphia: Lindsay & Blakiston, 1859.

Culpeper, N. Culpeper’s Complete Herbal and English Physician Enlarged. Glenwood, Illinois: Meyerbooks, 1990.

Franklin, Benjamin. The Complete Works in Philosophy, Politics, and Morals of the late Dr. Benjamin Franklin, Volume I. London: Longman et alia and J. Johnson & Co, 1806.

Foster, Steven and Duke, James, A. A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants and Herbs of Eastern and Central North America, Second Edition. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2000.

Gerard, J. The Herbal or General History of Plants: The Complete 1633 Edition as Revised and Enlarged by Thomas Johnson. New York: Dover Publications, 1975.

Grieve. A Modern Herbal. New York: Penguin, 1984.

Hitchcock, Susan Tyler and McIntosh, G.B. Gather Ye Wild Things: A Forrager’s Year. Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia Press, 1995.

Lust, John. The Herb Book. New York: Benedict Lust Publications, 2005.

Moerman, D. Native American Ethnobotany. Oregon: Timber Press, 1998.

Morgan, Robert. Boone: A Biography. Chapel Hill, NC: Algonquin Books, 2007.

National Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Trees, Eastern Region. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., 1998.

National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Herbs at a Glance: A Quick Guide to Herbal Supplements. NIH Publication No. 08-6248, April 2008.

Needham, William. The Hiker’s Notebook: a Compendium of Natural and Cultural Facts, Southern Appalachian Region. Found at

Newcomb’s Wildflower Guide. Boston, MA: Little, Brown, and Company, 1977.

Niering, W. A., Ed. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Wildflowers, Eastern Region. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., 1979.

Peterson, Lee Allen. Edible Wild Plants Eastern/Central Peterson, Lee Allen. Edible Wild Plants Eastern/Central North America. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1977.

Potterton, David, Ed. and Stringer, Michael, Illustrator. Culpeper’s Color Herbal. New York: Sterling Publishing Company Inc., 2007.

Pyle, Robert Michael. National Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Butterflies. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Chanticleer Press, 1995.

Sanders, Jack. The Secrets of Wildflowers. Guilford, CT: Globe Pequot Press, 2003.

Van Wyk, Ben-Erik and Wink, Michael. Medicinal Plants of the World. Portland, OR: Timber Press, Inc., 2004.

Weiner, M.A. Earth Medicine, Earth Food. New York: Ballantine Books, 1980.

General Botanical Websites:

Medicinal Practices Using Herbs and Roots

Abe, F. and Yamauchi, T. Pregnane glycosides from the roots of Asclepias tuberosa. Chem Pharm Bull. (Tokyo) 48(7):1017-1022, 2000.

American Cancer Society

Burnby, Juanita, G. A Study of the English Apothecary from 1660-1760. London: Wellcome Institute for the History of Medicine, 1983.

Cavender, Anthony. Folk Medicine in Southern Appalachia. Chapel Hill and London: The University of North Carolina Press, 2003.

Chandler, R. Frank, Freeman, Lois and Hooper, Shirley N. Herbal Remedies of the Maritime Indians. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 1:49-68, 1979. Found at

Childs, Lydia. The Family Nurse. Boston: Charles J. Hendee, 1837. (Reprinted by Applewood Books, Bedford, Massachusetts).

Comfort, John W. The Practice of Medicine on Thomsonian Principles and a Materia Medica Adapted to the Work. 1859.

Cotton, Sarah Mitchell: Bodies of Knowledge: The Influence of Slaves on the Antebellum Medical Community at

Culpeper, Nicholas. Culpeper’s Complete Herbal & English Physician. England, 1653. (Reprinted by Applewood Books, Bedford, Massachusetts).

Ehrenreich, Barbara and English, Deirdre. Witches, Midwives and Nurses: A History of Women Healers. New York: The City University of New York, The Feminist Press, 1973.

Estes, J. Worth. Hall Jackson and the Purple Foxglove: Medical Practice & Research in Revolutionary America 1760-1820. Hanover, NH: The University Press of New England, 1979.

Fett, Sharla, M. Working Cures: Health, Health and Power on Southern Slave Plantations. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press, 2002.

Gardner, Marlin and Aylworth, Benjamin, H. The Domestic Physician and Family Assistant. Cooperstown, New York: H. and E. Phinney, 1836. (Reprinted by Applewook Books, Bedford, Massachusetts).

Gunn, John C. Gunn’s Domestic Medicine. Knoxville, TN: The University of Tennessee Press, 1986.

Hamel, Paul B. and Chiltoskey, Mary U. Cherokee Plants and Their Uses -- A 400 Year History. Sylva, NC: Herald Publishing Co, 1975. Found at

Herrick, James William. Iroquois Medical Botany. State University of New York, Albany: PhD Thesis, 1977. Found at

Holmes, John, M. Herbs, Physicke & Nutrition in Early America: Thomas Jefferson Treats Himself. Fort Balley, Virginia: Loft Press, Inc. 1997.

Hough, Theodore and Sedgwick, William, T. The Human Mechanism: Its Physiology and Hygiene and the Sanitation of its Surroundings. Boston: Ginn & Company, 1906.

Jarvis, D. C. Folk Medicine: a Vermont Doctor’s Guide to Good Health. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1958.

Jefferson, Thomas. Notes on the State of Virginia. Chapel Hill, N.00032orth Carolina: The University of North Carolina Press, 1954. (First published in London in 1787)(Medicinal plants listed on page 38.).

Kress, Henriette. King’s American Dispensatory, 1898; scanned version copyright 1999-2008. Found at .

Kremers, Edward and Urdang, George. History of Pharmacy. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Company, 1940.

Larsen, A., Petersson, and Svensson, B. Podophyyllum derivatives (CPH 82) compared with placebo in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. British Journal of. Rheumatology, 28(2), p. 124-127 1989.

Libster, Martha. Herbal Diplomats. Golden Apple Publications, 2004. Available through:

Lloyd, John Uri and Lloyd,Curtis G. Drugs and Medicines of North America. Cincinnati, OH: Robert Clark & Co., 1884-1887.

Minter, Sue. The Apothecaries’ Garden: A History of the Chelsea Physic Garden. Stroud, Gloucestershire England: The History Press, 2008.

Natural Standard Database Monographs: for Cimicifuga racemosa, Datura stramonium, Impatiens biflora, Impatiens pallida, Mentha piperita, Melissa officinalis, Lavendula augustifolia, Panax quinquefolius, Sanguinaria canadense, Verbascus Thapsus.

Palmer, Thomas. The Admirable Secrets of Physick & Chyrurgery. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1984.

Romero, John Bruno. The Botanical Lore of the California Indians. New York: Vantage Press, Inc. 1954. Found at

Tannenbaum, Rebecca, J. The Healer’s Calling: Women and Medicine in Early New England. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 2002.

Tantaquidgeon, Gladys. Folk Medicine of the Delaware and Related Algonkian Indians. Harrisburg. PA: Historical Commission Anthropological Papers #3, 1972. Found at

Tennent, John. Every Man His Own Doctor. Williamsburg, VA and Annapolis, MD: William Parks, 1736. Ninth reprinting by the Printing and Post Office, Williamsburg, VA in 1984.

The Housekeeper’s Guide or Every Man His Own Doctor. Leeds, England: W.W. Robinson & Son, 1835.

Savitt, Todd, L. Medicine and Slavery: The Diseases and Health Care of Blacks in Antebellum Virginia. Chicago, IL: The University of Illinois Press, 1978.

Savitt, Todd L. “Slave Health and Medicine”:

Segelman, A.B., Segelman, F.P., Karliner, J., and Sofia, R.D. Sassafras and Herb Tea. Potential Health Hazards. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 236(5), p. 477, 1976.

Shrock, Richard Harrison. Medicine and Society in America: 1660-1860. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1960.

Speck, Frank G., Hassrick, R.B. and Carpenter, E.S. (1942) Rappahannock Herbals, Folk-Lore and Science of Cures. Proceedings of the Delaware County Institute of Science 10:7-55. Found at

Stanton, Lucia. Slavery at Monticello. Charlottesville, VA: The Thomas Jefferson Foundation Monograph Series, 1996.

Sturtevant, William. The Mikasuki Seminole: Medical Beliefs and Practices. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University, PhD Thesis, 1954. Found at

Ulrich, Laurel, Thatcher. A Midwife’s Tale: The Life of Martha Ballard, Based on Her Diary 1785-1812. New York: A. Knopf, Inc., 1990.

USDA: Natural Resources Conservation Service Plant guide on Virginia Spiderwort (Tradescantia virginiana). Found at

Witthoft, John. Cherokee Indian Use of Potherbs. Journal of Cherokee Studies 2(2):250-255, 1977. Found at