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There is no visual information and very little written references to the type of hats [1]Thomas Jefferson may have worn or preferred. Of the portraits made from life, none show him wearing or holding a hat and most contemporary references to Jefferson's appearance were occasioned by meetings or introductions happening indoors and thus in situations where a gentleman would not be wearing a hat. One observer who did describe President Jefferson in an outdoor setting, standing on the steps of the President's House in attendance on July 4th festivities in Washington noted that he was hatless: "He stood without his hat and his white locks waved in the breeze. How simple, how august, and venerable, was the appearance of this good and great man!"[2]

During his years as Vice President and President, Jefferson made entries in his accounting records of purchases of hats, however these are not explicit as to whether they were personal purchases or for family members, slaves, or servants. Only one entry dated July 12, 1802 specifically notes that payment is for a hat being repaired "for myself": "Dean repairg. hat for myself 11.25."[3]

It was not until late in Jefferson's life that two mentions were made of headwear. Daniel Webster visited Monticello in 1824 and said of the former President, "His whole dress is neglected but no slovenly. He wears a common round hat."[4] The round hat or slouch hat with a high crown and mid to wide brim had more utilitarian than fashionable roots, as traditionally it had been worn primarily for protection from sun and rain. Long associated with the working classes of England, it had been adopted by the English gentry as a riding hat and during the last quarter of the eighteenth century made its way into fashion. The round hat became popular in France during the revolution as a signal of republican sympathy and could have found its way into Jefferson's wardrobe for similar reasons. By 1824,the fashionable version of the round hat had metamorphosed into the top hat, which retained its fashion superiority throughout the remainder of the nineteenth and into the early twentieth centuries. That Jefferson still wore the round hat in 1824 would indicate a disregard of the latest fashion trends.

A rather strange description of Jeffersonian headwear was recorded in 1822: "He was mounted on a elegant horse going with speed--and he had no hat on but a lady's parasol, stuck in his coat behind, spread its canopy over his head...I am told he always rides in this manner during the summer without any hat..."[5] As a young man, Jefferson's hair was red and portraits indicate the fair skin that often accompanies hair of this color. A visitor to Monticello in 1814 said of Jefferson: "He is quite tall, six feet, one or two inches, face streaked and speckled with red, light grey eyes, white hair..."[6] It is quite probable that the sun had been a problem for Jefferson throughout his life and at the age of seventy-nine, he opted for an unusual but practical solution.

The only hats still extant that are known to have belonged to Jefferson are a simple linen nightcap and a close fitting cloth cap with bobcat fur.[7] Both would have served the utilitarian purpose of keeping the head warm. There are many Jefferson references to the "rigorous season" of winter, and he once wrote: "I have often wondered that any human being should live in a cold country who can find room in a warm one,"[8] and confessed to his son-in-law, "In fact I should be delighted to own a cotton estate in Georgia, and go and pass every winter under the orange trees of that country."[9] Understandably, Canada held no attractions for him: "The Canadian glows with delight in his sleigh and snow; the very idea of which gives me shivers."[10] A fur-lined cap could be a welcome accessory to one so sensitive to the cold.


  1. This article is based on Gaye Wilson, Monticello Research Report, February 2001.
  2. Margaret Bayard Smith, A Winter in Washington; or Memoirs of the Seymour Family. New York: E. Bliss & White, 1824), 215-218.
  3. MB, 2:1077.
  4. Fletcher Webster, ed. "Memorandum of Mr. Jefferson's Conversations," In Private Correspondence of Daniel Webster (Boston: 1857), 1:364-366. Reprinted in Peterson, Visitors, 98.
  6. Description by S.A. Bumstead, August 23, 1822.Jefferson Library Information File. APPEARANCE-Descriptions of TJ
  7. Visitors,57.
  8. Linen night cap in the collection of the Thomas Jefferson Foundation, Charlottesville, VA. The original bobcat fur cap in the collection of the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County; reproduction at the Thomas Jefferson Foundation.
  9. Jefferson to William Dunbar, January 12, 1801.
  10. Jefferson to Thomas Mann Randolph, March 12, 1802.
  11. Jefferson to CFC de Voleny, February 8, 1805.
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