"The second office of this government is honorable and easy."

- Thomas Jefferson, 1797


The Election of 1796 ... X, Y, Z Affair ... Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions ... Parliamentary Manual

X,Y, Z Affair

Relations with France reached a low point during the Adams Administration with far-reaching consequences for both Vice President Jefferson and President John Adams.

Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions

The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, initially drafted by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, respectively, were issued by the Kentucky and Virginia legislatures in response to the federal Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798.

Parliamentary Manual

When Thomas Jefferson was elected vice president under John Adams, one of his concerns was a lack of rules. A chief duty of the vice president was to preside over the Senate, and the few governing rules established in the Constitution left much to the discretion of the presiding officer. Even before taking office, he began research that would result four years later in "A Manual of Parliamentary Practice."

Explore Related Topics

James Thompson Callender Check out the entry on James Thompson Callender in the Thomas Jefferson Encyclopedia
James Madison Thomas Jefferson had an enemy in Alexander Hamilton, a frenemy in John Adams, and his BFF in James Madison. Jefferson and Madison formed a political partnership and personal friendship that made them the dynamic duo of the Founding Fathers.

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Thomas Jefferson by R. B. Bernstein

Author R. B. Bernstein offers the definitive short biography of this revered American. Included are all of Jefferson's triumphs, contradictions, and failings.

Thomas Jefferson: The Art of Power

Pulitzer Prize-winning author Jon Meacham gives us a complete vision of Thomas Jefferson the man, from birth to his last days and through the Revolutionary War to his years as President.

Election of 1796

The 1796 Presidential election was the first to field candidates from opposing parties with Federalists John Adams and Charles Pickney running against Democratic-Republicans Jefferson and Aaron Burr. Prior to the 12th Amendment, Electors cast two votes for President and the winner became President while the runner-up became Vice President. In 1796, a split ticket resulted in Adams becoming President and Jefferson becoming Vice President.