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Jefferson attempted to create an efficient plantation based on new approaches to agriculture and manufacturing. To realize his goals, dozens of enslaved and free workers lived and worked here on Mulberry Row. He added a series of dwellings and workshops to the outbuildings that served his elite household. Structures were built, dismantled, or re-purposed as Jefferson’s needs changed.

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Phase I (1769 - 1790)

The earliest structures supported the construction of Monticello I (1769-83).  Carpenters and joiners made almost all of the woodwork for the main house in the joiner’s shop.  Enslaved families occupied the “Negro quarter” and two other large log dwellings while hired artisans lived in the workmen’s house. Jefferson lived in what is now the South Pavilion until about 1774.

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“Negro quarter”
Dwelling for enslaved people—individuals and families
Early 1770s–by 1790

In addition to storing nailrod, this building also housed a brief tinsmithing operation in the 1790s and a nail-making enterprise after 1812.  It also served as living quarters for enslaved workers.
ca. 1790–ca. 1830

Three identical “servants houses,” were intended for enslaved house servants and artisans, including members of the Hemings family.


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