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Jefferson's Mill at Shadwell Little is known about coopering at Monticello before the completion of Jefferson's merchant mill at Shadwell in 1807. There the wheat of Jefferson and his neighbors was ground into flour and shipped in barrels down the Rivanna and James Rivers to Richmond to market.

Jefferson had two cooper's shops near the Shadwell mill which provided additional income by supplying flour barrels to the tenants of his mill. The weekly output of each shop was fifty-four barrels, or nine each working day.

The coopers and their assistants were enslaved individuals. Barnaby Gillette (b. 1783)—son of Edward, an enslaved carter, and Jane, an enslaved farm laborer—started his working life as a nailmaker at age eleven and was also trained as a shoemaker. He was active as a cooper from at least 1813. As an incentive, Jefferson allowed Barnaby to keep one of every thirty-one barrels he made to sell for his own benefit.

Another cooper was Nace (b. 1796), the son of Maria, a slave at Jefferson's Poplar Forest plantation. Nace was brought to Monticello by 1810, probably to learn the carpenter's trade. He was working full time as a enslaved cooper by 1819, receiving the same incentive as Barnaby (in June 1821, Jefferson gave Nace an order for forty-five barrels worth about $20, his "premium" for the 1,203 barrels he had made so far that year).

Primary Source References

Undated. "A cooper's task is 4. flour barrels a day from the rough, ie. from the stuf [sic] merely rived out into thicknesses for 2. staves, and 6. barrels a day when the staves are drawn."[1]  

1771 March 30. "Pd. Wn. Hickman for Coopering 15/."[2]

1772 March 12. "Pd. James Jones for coopering 20/. Owe him 10/ more."[3]

1778 March 20. "Pd. Giles Carter for coopering tobacco sold to T. Pleasants 42/."[4]

1778 March 24. "Pd...a barrel 3/."[5]

1807 March 1. (Jefferson to [[Edmund Bacon]]). "Mr. Perry was wrong in saying I had blamed you about the building the cooper's house & stable at the mill."[6]

1812 October 20. "3 men & 3. lads get 550. bolts of stave timber for flour barrels in a day. Each bolt makes 4. staves or heading pieces, & 25 staves & heading pieces make a barrel."[7]

1813 March 17. "Promised Barnaby to give him one barrel out every 31. he send to the mill."[8]

1816 September 13. (Jefferson to Joel Yancy). "As we cannot have the benefit of our offal there Bedford County by finding barrels, and here I can engage any quantity of offal at it's present price in exchange for barrels at 43 cents equal to 2/8, I have actually engaged for 1000. bushels over and above my own in exchange for barrels to be delivered as quick as possible. I must therefore pray you to send off Barnaby and Nace immediately, hoping they have done your hogsheads. If they have not, let them do them without delay and come off. We will determine what to do with the barrels and staves they have prepared when I come up."[9]

1816 December 21. "Gave Barnaby ord. on T.E. Randolph for the price of 18. Barrels to wit 1. in every 31. See ante 1813. Mar. 17. Note he has delivered (with 72. to be delivd. this day) 563. barrels from Oct. 9 to this day inclusive."[10]  

1817 August 2. "Colclaser says that a man saws & rives the timber & dresses compleatly [sic] for setting up staves for 250 barrels a day, 17. staves to a barrel."[11]

1817 August 8. (Jefferson to Daniel Colclaser). "You enquired [sic] the other day what number of barrels I should be able to furnish. We have barrel stuff enough in the woods ready cut off to serve two seasons. I have now set Mr. Goodman's force to riving and dressing ready to put up, and mean that they shall always get and dress the timber, so that Barnaby & other two with him shall do nothing but set up. I count on their setting up ready for delivery from 90. to 100. a week, & that they will do this at least 40. weeks in the year, as nothing but harvest or sickness will ever take them a day out of their shop. I therefore count on delivering you 4000. barrels a year. They have 50. in the barn already for delivery and will begin on Monday to prepare their 90. or 100. a week. I have instructed Mr. [[Edmund Bacon|Bacon]] to give the hauling necessary in this business a preference over every other call."[12]

1817 November 15. (Jefferson to Edmund Bacon). "I request particular attention to the Coopers that no hinderance may prevent their deliverance of their weekly compliment of Barrels. Davy, Jame and Sancho should carry them in the boat."[13]

1817 November 29. (Jefferson to Edmund Bacon). "I send Bedford Billy down to be put to work with the Coopers under Barnaby, and Thrimston to leave Barnaby and work with the carpenters. I hope you will keep them all to their duty. Billy is found too ungovernable for Johnny Hemings."[14]  

1817 December 10. (Edmund Bacon to Jefferson). "The Coopers is at present going on very well. We have been obliged to get the timber as we use it from the woods."[15]

1818 April 5. "Gave Barnaby ord. for barrels delivd. to Feb. 7. 234/31 = 8."[16] 

1818 July 26. (Edmund Bacon to Jefferson). "The miller says that they are interely [sic] disappointed in their arraingments [sic] to get barrills [sic] and that all their dependance [sic] is upon us. I think as the corn crop is to be so short that we had better try to make all the barls. we be so short that we had better try to make all the barls. we can so that we may get off all from the mill to fatten our hogs...Perhaps the carpenters will not be long from here. If they could dress staves so as to keep the coopers constantly makeing barrils it would be more profitable than any other labour they can do."[17] 

1819 August 4. (Edmund Bacon). "I have been thinking that as we have so greate [sic] a demand for bread stuff and support for stock that it would be the very best thing we can do to put more force into the cooper shops so as to enable the coopers to do nothing in dressing stuff but to Keep constantly makeing [sic] barrils [sic]. I wrote you by Mr. Meeks the disappointment the miller met in geting barrils. They are intirely desirious [sic] that we should expedite our barl. making. They say they will gladly take all we can make. I find that from what the two coopers say they have stuff ready dresed for about 5 or 600 barls. They are to begin to make barrils on munday next, say3 days hence and in a few weeks they will be out of dresed stuf [sic] so as to be obliged to stop making. I have inquired of them what force they would require to enable them to Keep constantly makeing. They sat tha tif I will have their hoop poles cut and give them on good hand to draw staves that they are pretty shore they can Keep on makeing barrils [sic] without having to stop from delivering their 54 from each shop a week which they say is their task. It is so very important to make all we can that I will make free in violateing [sic] your orders so far as to give each shop a man on munday [sic] and cut their poles...We have nearly hauled in all the barl. stuff ready got. They had not above one half as much as they told you they had got and unless more timber is got for them they will have to stop making barls. in the hight of the season to get timber themselves."[18]

1819 August 11. (Jefferson to Edmund Bacon). "I am glad you have given the assistance of a hand to each cooper's shop, and wish it to be continued, and even more help to be given if necessary, for I look to the offal of the mill as our only resource for bread."[19] 

1819 September 4. (Edmund Bacon to Jefferson). "Davy and Bevrily are with the cooper. They have not failed to deliver 108 barls. every week since they began to make and they dress their timber as they go. By ading [sic] the man to each shop compleatly[sic] enables them to deliver from the rough 9 barls. a day from each shop. This would give us a find profit during the season and if they are strictly attended to it can be done with ease and certainty. I spend most of my time intirely [sic] at the Cooper ships and tole mill. I intend to fix one of my sons to attend to the mill to markeing [sic] of the bags and delivering them and the other to see to the coopers and other hands during my absence."[20]

1819 December 19. "For barrels delivered by him Nace from Aug. 10. to Nov. 16. 19. inclusive, being 666. gave him order for 22. For do. by Barnaby from August 10. to Nov. 22. inclusive being 643. gave Barnaby from Aug. 10 to Nov. 22. inclusive being 643. gave Barnaby order for 21."[21]

1820 November 21. (Edmund Bacon to Jefferson). "We are ingaged sawing barrill timber."[22]

1820 November 29. (Jefferson to Edmund Bacon). "I must get you to look for a successor to Meeks, and engage him on the best terms you can. In the mean time employ James and Beverly in dressing timber for the coopers under your own superintendance."[23]

1821: "The staves of a flour barrel are got 28.I. long and dress to 27.I. It takes 16. or 17. staves to a barrel and 6. heading pieces, 22. or 23. in all. A cut of a middle sized tree yields 16. or 17. bolts, which give 4. staves each. Such a tree, midling good will yield 18. or 20. cuts. A cut will make 3. barrels, staves and heading. One tree with another will make 50. barrels."[24]  

1821 January 26. "Barnaby has delivd. 1203. barrels this year. I gave him an order for 26. some time ago, and now for 13 = 39 his allowance." [25]  

1822 April 18. (Edmund Bacon to Jefferson). "I understand the coopers have been geting [sic] bark from their timber. We had as well get it before the coopers. Bishop [local tanner] wants 30 or 40 cords."[26]

1822 August 29. (Jefferson Memorandum). "Nearly the whole stone was furnished by the hill above the coopers shop."[27]

1824 August 28. (Jefferson to Bernard Peyton). "The mill doing no business the last year I lost the avails of my cooper's shop 1200.D. more."[28]


  1. Edwin M. Betts, ed. Thomas Jefferson's Farm Book: With Commentary and Relevant Extracts from Other Writings (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1953, Rep. 1976, 1987, 1999), 106.. Manuscript and transcription available online at
  2. James A. Bear, Jr., and Lucia C. Stanton, eds. Jefferson's Memorandum Books: Accounts, with Legal Records and Miscellany, 1767-1826 (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1997), 1:252.
  3. Ibid, 1:286.
  4. Ibid, 1:461.
  5. Ibid.
  6. Huntington Library.
  7. Farm Book,123
  8. Memorandum Books, 2:1287.
  9. Massachusetts Historical Society.
  10. Memorandum Books, 2:1329.
  11. Farm Book, 12
  12. Farm Book, 463.
  13. Massachusetts Historical Society.
  14. Massachusetts Historical Society.
  15. University of Virginia.
  16. Memorandum Books, 2:1342.
  17. University of Virginia.
  18. Massachusetts Historical Society.
  19. Ibid.
  20. Ibid.
  21. Memorandum Books, 2:1360.
  22. University of Virginia.
  23. Massachusetts Historical Society.
  24. Farm Book,
  25. Memorandum Books, 2:1376.
  26. University of Virginia.
  27. Ibid.
  28. Massachusetts Historical Society.
Related Links:
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Monticello, the House
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