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Declaration of Independence
Contrary to popular belief, the Declaration of Independence was not signed on July 4th. On that day, the Declaration of Independence was officially adopted by the Continental Congress. On July 19th, the Continental Congress voted to have it engrossed and signed. The document was ready for delegates' signatures by August 2nd, and that is the earliest date at which Jefferson and the other delegates present in Philadelphia could have signed it.
The Dunlap Broadside
On the evening of July 4, 1776 a manuscript copy of the Declaration of Independence was taken to Philadelphia printer, John Dunlap. By the next morning finished copies had been pulled and delivered to Congress for distribution. The number printed is not known, though it must have been substantial; the broadsides were distributed by members of Congress throughout the Colonies. Post riders were sent out with copies of the Declaration, and General Washington, then in New York, had several brigades of the army drawn up at 6 p.m. on July 9 to hear it read. The Declaration was read from the balcony of the State House in Boston on July 18 but did not reach Georgia until mid August. Twenty-four original copies of what is referred to as the "Dunlap broadside" are still in existence.
The Engrossed Declaration
By July 9 all thirteen colonies had signified their approval, and so on July 19 Congress was able to order that the Declaration be "fairly engrossed on parchment. . .and that the same, when engrossed, be signed by every member of Congress." Timothy Matlack is believed to be the engrosser of the Declaration. On August 2nd the document was ready, and the journal of the Continental Congress records that "The declaration of independence being engrossed and compared at the table was signed." Following the signing, it is believed the document accompanied the Continental Congress during the Revolution and remained with government records following the war. During the War of 1812 it was kept at a private residence in Leesburg, Virginia and during World War II it was housed at Fort Knox. Today, the original document is kept in the National Archives in Washington, D.C.
- G. Wilson, May 2000.
- Armitage, David. The Declaration of Independence: A Global History. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2007. An examination of the Declaration of Independence from a global perspective.
- Boyd, Julian P. The Declaration of Independence: The Evolution of the Text. Issued in conjunction with an exhibit of these drafts at the Library of Congress on the two hundredth anniversary of the birth of Thomas Jefferson. Washington: Library of Congress, 1943. Reprinted 1945, 1999. Contains facsimiles of the known extant drafts of the Declaration.
- Colonial Williamsburg Foundation. Principles of Freedom: The Declaration of Independence and the American Revolution. This extensive site includes an excellent timeline of the creation and signing of the Declaration.
- DuPont, Christian Y. and Peter S. Onuf, eds. Declaring Independence: The Origin and Influence of America's Founding Document: Featuring the Albert H. Small Declaration of Independence Collection. Charlottesville, Va.: University of Virginia Library, 2008. See also the website of the companion exhibit, "Declaring Independence: Creating and Re-Creating America's Document".
- Ellis, Joseph J., ed. What Did the Declaration Declare? Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 1999.
- Gerber, Scott Douglas. The Declaration of Independence: Origins and Impact. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2002.
- Hazelton, John H. The Declaration of Independence: Its History. New York: Dodd, Mead, & Co., 1906. Reprinted 1970 by Da Capo Press. In-depth look at the creation of the Declaration of Independence. An appendix contains transcriptions of contemporary letters and annotations on the various drafts and changes to the Declaration.
- Maier, Pauline. American Scripture: Making the Declaration of Independence. New York: Knopf, 1997. An excellent scholarly overview of the creation of the Declaration.
- National Archives. "The Declaration of Independence: A History."
- Milestone Documents In The National Archives. The Declaration of Independence. National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, D.C., 1992. Focuses on the history of the engrossed parchment after 1776.
- The Declaration of Independence read by Bill Barker, who interprets Thomas Jefferson for Colonial Williamsburg
- Thomas Jefferson Foundation. The Monticello Classroom. "Jefferson and the Declaration of Independence". An article written for elementary- and middle-school-level readers.
- Look for more sources in the Thomas Jefferson Portal on the Declaration of Independence