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Jefferson Portrait by Raphaelle Peale (Silhouette)
Artist/Maker: Raphaelle Peale (1774-1825)
Origin/Purchase: Washington, D.C.
Dimensions: 11.4 × 9.8 (4 1/2 × 3 7/8 in.)
Location: In storage
Accession Number: 1962-1-26
Historical Notes: Though little is known about silhouette cutting at Monticello, Charles Willson Peale's success with the silhouette is well documented. With the help of the English inventor Isaac Hawkins, Peale created a rage in America for silhouettes cut with the aid of the physiognotrace, or "Facieatrace," a device based on the principle of Gilles-Louis Chrétien's machine that allowed a sitter to trace the outline of his own face. This outline was reduced by a pantograph to miniature size and impressed on twice-folded banknote paper, from which four identical silhouettes were cut. Peale installed the machine in the long gallery of his Philadelphia museum, and though it was designed to be self-operating, most sitters preferred to have some assistance. Peale's servant Moses Williams, a former slave, cut over 8,500 silhouettes in the first year.1
Peale's advertisement for Hawkins's machine intrigued Jefferson, who was in the process of helping Hawkins and Peale perfect another innovation, the polygraph. Peale sent Jefferson a drawing and an explanation by Hawkins of the physiognotrace, and dispatched his son Raphaelle to the President's House in 1804 to cut Jefferson's profile using a portable machine. Peale had already been distributing a silhouette of the President taken from the profile of his Bust by Jean-Antoine Houdon but preferred this image from life. He made thousands of copies to give to visitors to his Philadelphia museum.2 Raphaelle Peale also toured the South with his portable machine, taking silhouettes in Virginia, South Carolina, and Georgia. When the novelty began to fade, Raphaelle and others offered profiles of Washington, Adams, or Jefferson as enticements to silhouette customers.3
- Text from Stein, Worlds, 209
- 1. The Thomas Jefferson Foundation owns three Peale silhouettes of Dr. Colin and two of these are stll connected at the fold. Brook Hindle, "Charles Willson Peale's Science and Technology," in Charles Willson Peale and His World (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1983), 151-53; Charles Coleman Sellers, Mr. Peale's Museum: Charles Willson Peale and the First Popular Museum of Natural Science and Art (New York: W. W. Norton and Co., 1980), 197-99; Charles Coleman Sellers, "The Peale Silhouettes," American Collector 17 (May 1948): 6-8.
- 2. Charles Willson Peale to Jefferson, January 28, 1803, in The Selected Papers of Charles Willson Peale and His Family, ed. Lillian B. Miller (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1983-), v. 2, pt. 1:483 (transcription available at Founders Online); Peale to Jefferson, June 15, 1804, in ibid., v. 2, pt. 2:711-12 (recipient copy available online at Thomas Jefferson Papers, Library of Congress); Noble E. Cunningham, Popular Images of the Presidency from Washington to Lincoln (Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1991), 123-28.
- 3. Sellers, "The Peale Silhouettes," 8.