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Robert Hemings (1762-1819) was the son of Betty Hemings, a slave of John Wayles, Jefferson's father-in-law. Born in 1762, he was the first child of her alleged liaison with her master. Betty Hemings and her children became the property of Martha and Thomas Jefferson after Wayles' death in May 1773. Just a few weeks later, eleven-year-old Bob (as Jefferson always called him) became part of the Jefferson domestic staff.
By 1775 at least, Bob seems to have been serving as Jefferson's bodyservant, a position formerly held by Jupiter. Bob, described by a fellow slave as a "bright mulatto," accompanied Jefferson to Philadelphia in 1775 and 1776; in 1775 he was inoculated against smallpox by Dr. William Shippen, the same physician who had inoculated Jefferson almost a decade earlier.
Until Jefferson left for France in 1784, Bob accompanied him everywhere. An advertisement Jefferson placed in 1791 for Bob's position sheds light on his duties and skills: "Wanted, A Genteel Servant, who can shave and dress well, attend a gentleman on horseback, wait at table, and be well recommended." Or, as Jefferson wrote a friend, he sought someone to "shave, dress and follow me on horseback." Since Bob received some months training under a barber in Annapolis in 1784, he may not have given Jefferson his morning shave until that time. It appears that Bob also could drive Jefferson's phaeton when the need arose.
Jefferson's and Robert Hemings' daily association as master and servant ended when they parted in Boston on 1 July 1784. Bob returned to Virginia with Jefferson's horses and soon apparently found another place as a servant, keeping his wages for himself. This pattern continued after Jefferson's return from France. Although Bob accompanied Jefferson to New York in 1790, he left after three months to find a place as a servant in Virginia. Jefferson recalled him to Monticello during his vacations, often having difficulty learning his whereabouts.
Bob's reason for wishing to remain in Virginia was no doubt his wife Dolly, a slave living near Fredericksburg and later in Richmond. After some years of shuttling between Monticello (or wherever he was working) and Fredericksburg and Richmond, Bob seized an opportunity to live permanently with his family when it was offered in 1794. Bob and Dolly had two children, Elizabeth and Martin.
The transaction that resulted in Bob's freedom is not fully understood. Dr. George Frederick Stras (1746-1811), a French émigré living in Richmond, agreed to advance the purchase price of Bob's freedom, while Bob agreed to pay his debt to Stras with service. Jefferson complied reluctantly with this agreement; he thought that Bob had been "debauched" from him and had been valued too low (£60, or $200), especially considering the loss of his service "for 11 or 12 years past." The deed of manumission, which Stras kept until Bob paid for his freedom in service, was signed at Monticello on 24 December 1794. Martha Randolph saw Bob in Richmond in the next weeks: "He expressed great uneasiness at having quitted you in the manner he did and repeatedly declared that he would never have left you to live with any person but his wife."
Robert Hemings, the first slave freed by Jefferson, had evidently fulfilled his engagement by 1799, when he first appears in the Richmond tax rolls. Later entries give the impression that he operated a livery or hauling business. In 1802 he lived on a half-acre lot he owned at the corner of Grace and Seventh Streets. At some point, according to Isaac, he "had his hand shot off with a blunderbuss,"Isaac Jefferson, Bear, 4. and he died in 1819.
Primary Source References
1794 December 24. (Deed of Manumission for Robert Hemings). "This indenture witnesseth that I Thomas Jefferson of the county of Albemarle have manumitted and made free Robert Hemings, son of Betty Hemmings: so that in future he shall be free and of free condition, with all his goods and chattels and shall be discharged of all obligation of bondage or servitude whatsoever: and that neither myself, my heirs executors or administrators shall have any right to exact from him hereafter any services or duties whatsoever..."
1794 December 26. (Jefferson to Thomas Mann Randolph) "You will find by the inclosed tthat Bob's business has been hastened into such a situation as to make it just that the person whom I suppose to have debauched him from me, as well as the special inconvenience of my letting him go for 2. or 3. years to come, and a total abandonment of his services for 11 or 12 years past should have been known and operated in estimating his value as a mulct on Mr. S. However all that has been kept out of view, and I have too much respect for the gentlemen who have valued him to have the subject revised. It remains therefore only to receive the money and deliver the deed, which you will find inclosed in the letter to Mr. Stras. I have made it to Bob himself, because Mr. Stras mentions it is for his freedom he is to advance the money, and his holding the deed will sufficiently secure the fulfillment of Bob's engagements to him. When you shall have received the money, be so good as to pay L41-16 currency of it to Mr. Lyle with the sum delivered you before, and hold up the balance, as I expect in 2. or 3 posts from Philadelphia to learn whether I owe it there or am to apply it to certain purposes here. Stras's letter and the valuation to be returned to me."
1795 January 15. (Jefferson to Martha Jefferson Randolph). "I saw Bob frequently while in Richmond. He expressed great uneasiness at having quitted you in the manner he did and repeatedly declared that he would never have left you to live with any person but his wife. He appeared to be so much affected at having deserved your anger that I could not refuse my intercession when so warmly solicited towards obtaining your forgiveness. The poor creature seems so deeply impressed with a sense of his ingratitude as to be rendered quite unhappy by it but he could not prevail upon himself to give up his wife and child."
1795 January 22. (Jefferson to [[Martha Jefferson Randolph]]). "In my last to him [Thomas Mann Randolph] I asked the favor of him to remit the balance of Stras's money (after taking out Mr. Lyle's and Taylor's) to Mr. Mussi in Philadelphia."
1. This article is based on Lucia Stanton, Monticello Research Report, 1990.
2. Jefferson paid a tailor for "cutting out clothes for Bob" in June. James A. Bear, Jr., and Lucia C. Stanton, eds. Jefferson's Memorandum Books: Accounts, with Legal Records and Miscellany, 1767-1826 (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1997), 342.
4. Philadelphia General Advertiser, 7 January 1791.
5. Thomas Jefferson to Daniel Hylton, 5 February 1792, Julian P. Boyd, Charles T. Cullen, John Catanzariti, Barbara B. Oberg, et al, eds. The Papers of Thomas Jefferson (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1950-), 23:102.
8. Jefferson to Martha Randolph, 8 August 1790, Papers of Thomas Jefferson, 17:326-327; to Fitzhugh, 24 August 1790, Papers of Thomas Jefferson, 17:417-419; to Hylton, 1 July 1792, Papers of Thomas Jefferson, 24:145.
12. Richmond Personal Property Levies.
13. Martha Jefferson Randolph to Jefferson, 7 August 1819, Betts, Edwin M., and James Bear, Jr., eds. Family Letters of Thomas Jefferson (Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press, 1966; Reprinted Charlottesville: Thomas Jefferson Memorial Foundation, 1986), 429-31.
14. Please note that this list should not be considered comprehensive.
16. Ibid, 28:225.
- Gordon-Reed, Annette. The Hemingses of Monticello: an American Family. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2008.
- Stanton, Lucia. Free Some Day: The African-American Families of Monticello. Charlottesville: Thomas Jefferson Foundation, 2000.