During his lifetime, Jefferson owned more than 600 enslaved people and hired more than 100 white artisans to work on his plantations. Of those, Monticello staff historians have identified 87 known individuals who likely lived and worked on Mulberry Row. The stories of these free and enslaved workers, some of which are chronicled here, convey the complex and dynamic world of Monticello’s main plantation street.

The enslaved men, women, and children who lived and worked on Mulberry Row were part of the larger landscape of slavery on Jefferson’s plantations -- hundreds of men, women, and children labored on Jefferson’s landholdings between the 1770s and 1831. Members of several enslaved families, including the Grangers, Gillettes, Hemingses, Herns, and Fossetts, lived on Mulberry Row and worked in its workshops or in the main house. Some slaves worked in Jefferson’s household as domestic servants—seamstresses, chambermaids, house parlor maids, valets, cooks, wet nurses, and laundresses. Others worked directly on Mulberry Row as skilled artisans—tinsmiths, blacksmiths, nailers, carpenters, sawyers, house joiners, charcoal-burners, hostlers, weavers, and spinners.

Bartlet (b. 1786), Enslaved Nailer
Ben (b. 1785), Enslaved Nailer
Cary (b. ca. 1785–sold 1803), Charcoal-burner, Nailer
Burwell Colbert (1783–1862), Enslaved Nailer
Brown Colbert (1785–after 1831), Enslaved Nailer
Davy (b. 1785), Enslaved Charcoal-burner, Nailer, Sawyer
Dolly (b. 1794), Enslaved Weaver
Eliza (b. 1805), Enslaved Quiller
Jupiter Evans (1743–1800), Enslaved Coachman, Hostler, Stonecutter, Valet
Joseph Fossett (1780–1858), Enslaved Blacksmith, Nailer
Frank (1757-1809), Enslaved Charcoal-burner
Barnaby Gillette (1783–after 1827), Enslaved Cook, Nailer

Agnes Gillette (1798–1817), Enslaved Spinner
Israel Gillette (1800–c. 1879), Enslaved Carder (links to page in the Getting Word African American Oral History Project)
George Granger, Sr. (1730–1799), Enslaved Overseer

George Granger, Jr., (1759–1799), Enslaved Blacksmith, Manager, Nailer
Isaac Granger Jefferson (1775–1846), Enslaved Blacksmith, Nailer, Tinsmith

Ursula Granger (1737–1800), Enslaved Cook, Dairymaid, Laundress, Nursemaid
Critta Hemings (b. 1769), Enslaved
Elizabeth (Betty) Hemings (1735–1807), Enslaved Domestic Servant
Eston Hemings (1808-1856), Enslaved Joiner
James Hemings (b. 1787), Enslaved Nailer
Harriet Hemings (1801–after 1822), Enslaved Spinner
Madison Hemings (1805–1877), Enslaved Joiner

Nance Hemings (1761–post 1827), Enslaved Brewer, Cook, Weaver

Peter Hemings (1770–after 1834), Enslaved Brewer, Cook, Spinner, Tailor

Sally Hemings (b. 1773–1835), Enslaved Domestic Servant
John Hemmings (1776–1833), Enslaved Carpenter, Joiner
Priscilla Hemmings (ca.1776–1830), Enslaved Nursemaid
Cretia Hern (b. 1779), Enslaved Spinner

David Hern, Jr. (1784–after 1829), Enslaved Blacksmith, Charcoal-burner, Nailer, Wagoner

Mary Hern (b. 1780), Enslaved Weaver
Moses Hern (1779–after 1832), Enslaved Blacksmith, Field Laborer, Nailer
John Hern (b. 1800), Enslaved Carder

Randall Hern (b. 1802), Enslaved Carder
Ben Hix (1784–1799), Enslaved Nailer
Kit Hix (b. 1786), Enslaved Nailer

James Hubbard (1783–after 1812), Enslaved Charcoal-burner, Nailer, Stonecutter
Phil Hubbard (1786–1819), Enslaved Nailer, Sawyer
Wormley Hughes (1781–1858), Enslaved Coachman, Gardener, Hostler
Isabel (1800–1822), Enslaved Spinner
Isaiah (b. 1800), Enslaved Carder
John (b. 1785), Enslaved Nailer
Lewis (1758/60–1822), Enslaved Carpenter, Field Laborer, Joiner
Lewis (b. 1788), Enslaved Nailer
Maria (b. 1798), Enslaved Spinner
Nanny (b. 1799), Enslaved Spinner
Sally (b. 1797), Enslaved Weaver
Shepherd (b. 1782), Enslaved Nailer

Suck (b. 1758), Enslaved Worker

Edmund Bacon (1785–1866), Hired White Overseer
David Barnet, Hired White Sawyer
William Beck, Hired White General Laborer, Lime Burner
Hugh Chisholm, Hired White Bricklayer, Carpenter, Mason
Benjamin Colvard, Hired White Carpenter
James Dinsmore (ca. 1771–1830), Hired White Joiner, Manager
Gideon Fitz, Hired White Carpenter
William Fossett, Hired White Carpenter
Humphrey Gaines, Hired White Carpenter
Anthony Giannini (1747–after 1811), Hired White Gardener, Vigneron
John Holmes (d. 1801), Hired White Joiner
H. Hough, Hired White Charcoal-burner
Bartholomew Kindred, Hired White Weaver
Gabriel Lilly, Hired White Overseer
William Maddox, Hired White Mason
James McGee, Hired White Carpenter
William McLure, Hired White Weaver
John Neilson, (d. 1827), Hired White Joiner
Joseph Neilson, Hired White Carpenter, Joiner
James Oldham, (d. 1843), Hired White Joiner
William Orr, Hired White Blacksmith
John M. Perry, Hired White Carpenter
Reuben Perry, Hired White Carpenter
Richard Richardson, (b. ca. 1775), Hired White Bricklayer, Overseer, Plasterer
---- Robinson, Hired White Sawyer
Jacob Silknitter, Hired White Charcoal-burner
William Stewart, Hired White Blacksmith, Nailer
Thomas Walker, Hired White Joiner
Elisha Watkins, Hired White Carpenter
David Watson, Hired White Joiner

At Montiello, Jefferson recorded only one free black man and two “mulatto” servants who worked in the 1770s and 1780s as general laborers.  Jefferson hired enslaved laborers, often termed “jobbers” or “hirelings,” from nearby owners to build the canal for his mills at Shadwell mills, dig an icehouse, excavate the foundations of the main house wings, construct the Shadwell toll mill, and begin the initial work on the Shadwell manufacturing mill. In some cases, these hired slaves ran away to their home plantations; others married and formed families with Monticello slaves. In the 1770s and 1780s, Jefferson hired white indentured servants and “bonded” mixed-race workers to work at Monticello. Indentured servitude – contract work with no pay – was a kind of temporary slavery that was a common form of labor in colonial Virginia.

George Bradby, a Free Black General Laborer

William Rice, an Indentured Servant and Stonecutter

Buck, a Hired Enslaved Shoemaker

Edmund, a Hired Enslaved Field Laborer

Essex, a Hired Enslaved Sawyer

Several members of Jefferson's household oversaw work on Mulberry Row. Jefferson's daughter, Martha Jefferson Randolph, supervised the smokehouses, dairy, wash house, and textile workshop. Her husband, Thomas Mann Randolph, was tasked with ensuring that Jefferson's work instructions were carried out on Mulberry Row. Both reported on plantation activities to Jefferson during his frequent absences from Monticello.

Martha Jefferson Randolph, Jefferson's daughter

Thomas Mann Randolph, Jefferson's son-in-law